Instructional Design Models

What is Instructional Design?

Instructional System Design (ISD) provides a systematic, step-by-step approach to creating instruction. The basics steps involve ascertaining the needs, determining the solution, and putting that solution into practice. The design is examined to determine if improvements can be made. The ISD process is essential for building instruction and is typically present in some form, whether the implementation formally or not.

Instructional Design Models


There are many different models of the ISD process, but the framework of ADDIE provides a simple overview. ADDIE is short for:
  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Development
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

Dick and Carey’ Systems Approach to Design

Dick and Carey’s model is a very structured, methodical approach to Instructional Design. It breaks down the design process into smaller steps, balancing the instructional objectives against the entry state of the learners. Once the objectives are in place, assessments are developed before the instruction itself. However, the systematic model also recognizes the importance of the iterative refinement of each stage through constant evaluation.

Dick and Carey's Systems Approach Model
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Dick and Carey's Model Steps:

  • Identify Instructional Goals
  • Conduct Instructional Analysis
  • Analyze Learners and Contexts
  • Write Performance Objectives
  • Develop Assessment Instruments
  • Develop Instructional Strategy
  • Develop and Select Instructional Materials
  • Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction
  • Revise Instruction
  • Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation

I plan to follow Dick and Carey's model since it closely fits how I naturally operate. I tend to work logically through a problem step-by-step. Especially when developing instructional materials and lectures, I constantly return to early stages in order to refine them. Feedback from student reactions, assessments, and comments enable me to further improve the instruction for upcoming semesters.

Model Comparison

Dick and Carey System's Approach
Kemp, Morrison, and Ross
Identify Instructional Goals
Conduct Instructional Analysis
Analyze Learners and Contexts

Identify Instructional Problems
Learner Characteristics
Task Analysis
Instructional Resources
Write Performance Objectives
Instructional Objectives
Content Sequencing
Develop Instructional Strategy
Develop and Select Instructional Materials

Instructional Strategies
Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction
Revise Instruction

Instructional Delivery
Develop Assessment Instruments
Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation

Evaluation Instruments

While all three models have the same goal in mind - designing effective instruction - they attempt to get to that goal in different ways. When trying to fit Dick and Carey's Model stages into the ADDIE framework, it becomes clear that Dick and Carey's Systems Approach prioritizes certain tasks, moving them to earlier in the process. It places the development of assessment (an evaluation task) to just after the analysis, so that the assessments can help steer the design and development process. The Kemp, Morrison, and Ross model does not have a set order. In the table above I have forced them into the ADDIE categories, but the design of the model purposely gives the Instructional Designer the freedom to work with any stage at a given time.

Dick and Carey's System Approach Applied to Audio Basics Instruction

Dick and Carey
Audio Basics Instruction
Instructional Goals
To develop one instructional module of MUSC 365 Introduction to Audio Recording covering the fundamental principles of sound and waveforms
To develop a self-guided study aid with audio and visual examples
Instructional, Learner, and Context Analysis
Undergraduate students in MUSC 365 from various majors.
Mathematics competency in trigonometry and logarithms is typically lacking
Performance Objectives
Mastery of basic audio principles (amplitude, frequency, polarity, and phase)
Understanding of simple interactions of audio waveforms
Design Instructional Strategy
Develop Instruction Material
Keynote Presentation
Audio examples
Waveform diagrams
Written exams
Understanding of later concepts
Student feedback
Constant refinement

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